Chemical Reactions in Gas Phase – Ammonia Synthesis

Ammonia synthesis process

Ammonia is a widely used material, such as fertilizers, plastic materials, medicines, and daily necessities. Currently, ammonia is being mass-produced at factories. However, in the past, when we did not know how to synthesize ammonia, we thought that ammonia was the only organism that could produce it.The synthesis process of ammonia is as follows.

N2 + 3H2 -> 2NH3         ΔH = -92 KJ/mol

That is, 1 volume of nitrogen gas and 3 volumes of hydrogen gas produce 2 volumes of ammonia. ΔH indicates the transfer of energy in the course of the reaction and (-) indicates that the reaction is exothermic.
According to the principle of Le Chatelier, more ammonia can be obtained at higher pressures and lower temperatures.

The pressure can be increased as much as possible, but the temperature can not be lowered. In order for the chemical reaction to take place, the particles must collide with one another over a certain speed. In this case, using a catalyst can reduce the energy required for collision.
Currently, ammonia makes with high pressure in a huge reaction vessel containing nitrogen gas, hydrogen gas and catalyst.