Polar Molecule & Nonpolar Molecule






Polar molecule

Polar molecules have polar covalent bonds between their constituent atoms, and the shape of the molecule is asymmetric. Therefore, the centers of positive and negative charges do not coincide.

Just as there are poles on both sides of a bar magnet, a polar molecule has a partial positive charge (δ+) on one side and a partial negative charge (δ-) electricity on the other.
When an electric field is applied around a polar molecule, δ+ face toward the (-) pole, and δ- face toward the (+) pole.
Polar molecules are very soluble in a polar solvent(e.g., water) but not very soluble in non-polar solvents (e.g., benzene, oil).

Non-polar molecule

It is a molecule that does not have electrical polarity when viewed from the outside.
In some cases, as in the case of inert gases, the molecules themselves are not polarized. Even if it is a polar covalent bond, it becomes a non-polar molecule if the shape is symmetric.

Nonpolar molecules do not have a partial charge.
Nonpolar molecules don’t react to an electric field.
Non-polar molecules are not very soluble in a polar solvent(e.g., water) but very soluble in non-polar solvents (e.g., benzene, oil).

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