Collision of two balls of different mass

1. What happens if you throw a light ball towards a heavy ball?

Just like a basketball ball bounces on the surface of a large earth, the light ball bounces.
This is easy to understand.

2. When a heavy ball rushes towards a light ball

In this case, you have to think a bit.
You need to do a simple coordinate transformation. Remove the speed of v for each ball. Then, you can think that the light ball is approaching while the heavy ball is stopped.
Then, we can think that light ball hitting a heavy ball surface and then bouncing back.
Then add speed v to each ball. As a result, the light ball bounces with a speed of 2v.

3. When two balls collide with each other at speed v

You can add both cases. As a result of the crash, the light ball will pop out at speed 3v.