Altitude-temperature data is based on ISA(International Standard Atmosphere).
Values ​​other than the data were obtained using spline interpolation.

Altitude(km) Air Temperature(℃)
0 15
4 -11
8 -37
12 -56.5
20 -56.5
30 -46.5
40 -22
50 -2.5
60 -26
70 -53.5
80 -74.5
110 -33.5

The atmospheric pressure P depending on the altitude was calculated by the following formula.

\[ P(hPa) = 1013 \cdot e^{-\frac{gMh}{RT}} \]

g = 9.80665(m/s²) Gravity acceleration
M = 0.028(kg/mol) Mass per mole of air
h = Altitude(km)
R = 8.31432(N·m/mol·K) Ideal gas constant
T = Air temperature(K)


The various gases surrounding the Earth are called the atmosphere. The atmosphere is distributed from the Earth's surface to about 1,000 km. Most air is distributed near the surface.

Troposphere(16 to 18 km altitude at the equator, 10 to 12 km at mid-latitudes, 6-8 km at polar regions)

In the troposphere, the radiant heat of the surface reaches less as it goes up. Therefore, the higher the altitude, the lower the temperature. About 80% of the total air is distributed in the troposphere. Clouds, rain, snow and other meteorological phenomena appear. The meteorological phenomenon in the troposphere is due to the presence of water vapor in the air and the active convection.

Stratosphere(Tropopause ~ 50km)

The stratosphere has an ozone layer at a height of about 20 to 30 km. The ozone layer absorbs most of the ultraviolet rays coming from the sun, protecting the creatures on the earth. In the Stratosphere, the higher the altitude, the higher the temperature. This is because ozone in the Stratosphere is absorbed by ultraviolet light and heated. In the stratosphere, the atmosphere is stable and no convection occurs.

Mesosphere(Stratopause ~ 85km)

In the mesosphere, the higher the altitude, the lower the temperature. Mesopause has the lowest temperature. In the mesosphere, convection occurs, but the air is lean and there is almost no vapor, so there is no meteoric phenomenon. In addition, a starfire appears in the upper part of the mesosphere.

Thermosphere(above the Mesopause)

The thermosphere is where the energy of the sun is first absorbed. The further away you are from Earth, the higher the temperature. Thermosphere is very lean air. The temperature difference between day and night is very large, and the aurora appears in high latitude regions. Most orbits of satellites are distributed in the thermosphere.